Android kernel exploit github

The cpu can offload these tasks to the DSP to improve overall performance.Reload to refresh your session.Now, let’s see the how the same could be achieved in the exploit code.This is an excerpt of the kernel log during the early stage of booting a Pixel An action to build an Android kernel with specified toolchains.If no such value exist, then an out-of-memory error will occur.Updated Jul 14, C.Updated May 30, C.The blocking feature of pipe gives us significant time window to corrupt iovec structure in kernel space.All of these bugs had been patched for quite some time, with the last one patched on the first of January.
Android Kernel Exploitation – Android Kernel Exploitation – (android-kernel-exploitation)

Android Kernel Exploitation – As the second usage is likely to involve plugging a usb device to a phone and thus requires physical access.Project Zero bug reports.Keromytis at Black Hat Europe [paper] [ video ].Pendulum Kernel old Rebirth based on LE.Updated Jul 6, C.

Updated Jul 6, C.Updated Feb 23, Updated Aug 8, C.Updated Aug 4, C.Redmi Note 3.Star 3.Galaxy Prime fortunave3g kernel sources.Updated Jul 5, C.Updated Feb 24, C.Automated Android Kernel Playground.Updated Oct 2, Shell.Star 2.

Updated Feb 21, C.Updated Aug 9, C.Updated Dec 26, C.Script for building Android kernel.Updated May 10, Shell.

Updated Jun 15, C.Updated Jun 11, C.Star 1.Custom Kernel for OnePlus5.Updated Mar 1, C.The use of struct iovec was first published by Di Shen of KeenLab.This is used to reduce the overhead associated with multiple system calls if we want to read and write to multiple buffers using read or write system call.One of the main issue with struct iovec is that they are short lived.They are allocated by system calls when they are working with the buffers and immediately freed when they return to user mode.

Note: We are on Android 4.So, we had already applied the patch to revert those additional checks which would prevents us from leaking kernel space memory chunk.How do we make iovec structure stay in kernel before we trigger the unlink operation? One way is to use system calls like readv , writev on a pipe file descriptor because it can block if the pipe is full or empty.The blocking feature of pipe gives us significant time window to corrupt iovec structure in kernel space.

Let’s dig into writev system call and figure out how it uses iovec structure.We will use writev system call this time as we want to achieve scoped read from kernel space to user space.If you know about SLUB allocator, you will know that kmalloc contains all the object whose size is greater than but less than equal to bytes.We see that we will need to stack up 25 iovec structures to reallocate the dangling chunk.

This is the last point where the call can fail.Of course, to actually cause an out-of-memory error would be rather difficult and unreliable, as well as risking to crash the device by exhausting the memory.When mapping memory to the gpu, this align value will be used to ensure that the memory address is mapped to a value that is aligned i.

In particular, the gpu address will be the next multiple of align that is not already occupied.If no such value exist, then an out-of-memory error will occur.

So by using a large align value in the ioctl call, I can easily use up all the addresses that are aligned with the value that I specified.The various different ways of syncing the buffer will more or less follow a code path like this:.The questions are:.It seems to be very rarely used in modern Android phones and as far as I can gather, there are two main uses of it:.

As the second usage is likely to involve plugging a usb device to a phone and thus requires physical access.How does the kernel guarantee this? This is an excerpt of the kernel log during the early stage of booting a Pixel In fact, the address only seems to depend on the amount of memory configured for the SWIOTLB, which is passed as the swiotlb boot parameter.

This is an array used for storing addresses of DMA buffers that are attached to devices with addresses that are too high for the device to access:.Of course, it is no good to just cause out-of-bounds access, I need to be able to read back the out-of-bounds data in the case of a read access and control the data that I write in the case of a write access.This issue will be addressed in the next section.

The DSP and the adsprpc itself is a very vast topic that had many security implications, and it is out of the scope of this post.Roughly speaking, the DSP is a specialized chip that is optimized for certain computationally intensive tasks such as image, video, audio processing and machine learning.The cpu can offload these tasks to the DSP to improve overall performance.

This is what the adsprpc driver is for.For example, Samsung phones allow accesses of adsprpc from third party Apps, which allows the exploit in this post to be launched directly from a third party App or from a compromised beta version of Chrome or any other compromised App.On phones which adsprpc accesses is not allowed, such as the Pixel 4, an additional bug that compromises a service that can access adsprpc is required to launch this exploit.

While it is possible to work with a temporary buffer like this by racing with multiple threads, it would be better if I can allocate a permanent SWIOTLB.This turns out to be the most complicated part of the exploit.With this bug alone, there is almost no hope of getting an info leak at this stage.A CodeQL query can be used to help looking for suitable objects:.

However, not being able to use null character turns out to be too much of a restriction here.I can then use the sendmsg to replace it with controlled data.To ensure that each task thread or process has a fair share of the cpu time, the linux kernel scheduler can interrupt a running task and put it on hold, so that another task can be run.

This kind of interruption and stopping of a task is called preemption where the interrupted task is preempted.In this case, we say that the task is voluntarily preempted.

Vulnerabilities used in the series

android kernel exploits漏洞集合 theconcertgoer.com – android-kernel-exploits/exploit_mp3_bypass_pxn.c at master · SecWiki/android-kernel-exploits.Objective.The objective of this workshop is to get started with kernel vulnerability analysis and exploitation in Android platform.Workshop Stream.Android.As the exploit mitigations are increasing day by day, it’s very important to build better primitives.Primitive.task_struct structure has an important member.

How to use:

  1. Balsn CTF futex : sourcewriteup.
  2. This is the last point where the call can fail.
  3. Project Zero bug reports.
  4. As we can see from the above table, iovecStack[10].
  5. Weaver and Dave Jones [paper].
Upstream kernel dengan Termux, time: 13:59

Exploitation

An action to build an Android kernel with specified toolchains.Dynamic Build Wrapper for Android-compatible kernel source.

android-kernel – properties

  • As we can see, some ion heap are created at fixed locations with fixed sizes.
  • Note: To effectively, use the blocking feature of writev system calls we will need at least two light weight processes.
  • This new slab is then likely to fall into the hole behind the last allocated DMA buffer.
  • So by reading the memory behind the DMA buffer and looking for this pattern, I can locate the file structs that belong to the binder devices that I opened.
  • Together, these three bugs form an exploit chain that allows remote kernel code execution by visiting a malicious website in the beta version of Chrome.
  • Google CTF pwn-fullchain : sourcewriteup.
  • Pendulum Kernel old Rebirth based on LE.
  • This is an excerpt of the kernel log during the early stage of booting a Pixel

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: So by using a large align value in the ioctl call, I can easily use up all the addresses that are aligned with the value that I specified.

Git stats 99 commits.The blocking feature of pipe gives us significant time window to corrupt iovec structure in kernel space.Point two means that the usual shortcut of overwriting credentials of my own process to that of a root process would not work.

  • To better understand the flow of exploitation, let’s see a diagram created by Maddie Stone on Project Zero blog post.
  • I can then use the sendmsg to replace it with controlled data.
  • If no such value exist, then an out-of-memory error will occur.
  • Star 3.
  • N1CTF writeup.

When mapping memory to the gpu, this align value will be used to ensure that the memory address is mapped to a value that is aligned i.In particular, the gpu address will be the next multiple of align that is not already occupied.

If no such value exist, then an out-of-memory error will occur.So by using a large align value in the ioctl call, I can easily use up all the addresses that are aligned with the value that I specified.The various different ways of syncing the buffer will more or less follow a code path like this:.

The questions are:.It seems to be very rarely used in modern Android phones and as far as I can gather, there are two main uses of it:.As the second usage is likely to involve plugging a usb device to a phone and thus requires physical access.How does the kernel guarantee this? This is an excerpt of the kernel log during the early stage of booting a Pixel In fact, the address only seems to depend on the amount of memory configured for the SWIOTLB, which is passed as the swiotlb boot parameter.

This is an array used for storing addresses of DMA buffers that are attached to devices with addresses that are too high for the device to access:.Of course, it is no good to just cause out-of-bounds access, I need to be able to read back the out-of-bounds data in the case of a read access and control the data that I write in the case of a write access.

This issue will be addressed in the next section.The DSP and the adsprpc itself is a very vast topic that had many security implications, and it is out of the scope of this post.Roughly speaking, the DSP is a specialized chip that is optimized for certain computationally intensive tasks such as image, video, audio processing and machine learning.The cpu can offload these tasks to the DSP to improve overall performance.

This is what the adsprpc driver is for.For example, Samsung phones allow accesses of adsprpc from third party Apps, which allows the exploit in this post to be launched directly from a third party App or from a compromised beta version of Chrome or any other compromised App.On phones which adsprpc accesses is not allowed, such as the Pixel 4, an additional bug that compromises a service that can access adsprpc is required to launch this exploit.

While it is possible to work with a temporary buffer like this by racing with multiple threads, it would be better if I can allocate a permanent SWIOTLB.This turns out to be the most complicated part of the exploit.

With this bug alone, there is almost no hope of getting an info leak at this stage.A CodeQL query can be used to help looking for suitable objects:.However, not being able to use null character turns out to be too much of a restriction here.

I can then use the sendmsg to replace it with controlled data.To ensure that each task thread or process has a fair share of the cpu time, the linux kernel scheduler can interrupt a running task and put it on hold, so that another task can be run.

This kind of interruption and stopping of a task is called preemption where the interrupted task is preempted.In this case, we say that the task is voluntarily preempted.Preemption can happen inside syscalls such as ioctl calls as well, and on Android, tasks can be preempted except in some critical regions e.

The default behavior, however, will not normally give us much control over when the preemption happens, nor how long the task is put on hold.To gain better control in both these areas, cpu affinity and task priorities can be used.

Crazy as it seems, the race can actually be won almost every time, and the same parameters that control the timing would even work on both the Galaxy A71 and Pixel 4.Even when the race failed, it does not result in a crash.For some reason, I only managed to hold that task for about ms, and sometimes this is not long enough for the object replacement to complete.

To allocate DMA buffers, I need to use the ion allocator, which will allocate from the ion heap.There are different types of ion heaps, but not all of them are suitable, because I need one that would allocate buffers with addresses greater than 32 bit.

The locations of various ion heap can be seen from the kernel log during a boot, the following is from Galaxy A As we can see, some ion heap are created at fixed locations with fixed sizes.The addresses of these heaps are also smaller than 32 bits.However, there are other ion heaps, such as the system heap, that does not have a fixed address.These are the heaps that have addresses higher than 32 bits.The key point is that, while objects allocated from kmalloc and co.

In the above, the 5th column indicates the size of the slabs in pages.As mentioned in Exploiting the Linux kernel via packet sockets , for each order, the buddy allocator maintains a freelist and use it to allocate memory of the appropriate order.

In fact, after some experimentation on Pixel 4, it seems that after allocating a certain amount of DMA buffers from the ion system heap, the allocation will follow a very predicatble pattern.The heap spraying strategy is then very simple.Updated Dec 10, C.Star 9.Updated Mar 14, C.Updated Jan 16, C.Star 8.Jasper Kernel for Xiaomi Redmi 3S! Updated Oct 14, C.Updated Nov 5, Shell.Updated Sep 29, C.Star 7.Updated Oct 15, Updated May 30, C.

Updated Jul 14, C.Star 5.Updated Jun 7, Shell.Star 4.Updated Jul 6, C.Updated Feb 23, Updated Aug 8, C.Updated Aug 4, C.Redmi Note 3.Star 3.Galaxy Prime fortunave3g kernel sources.Updated Jul 5, C.Updated Feb 24, C.Automated Android Kernel Playground.Updated Oct 2, Shell.Star 2.Updated Feb 21, C.Updated Aug 9, C.Updated Dec 26, C.Script for building Android kernel.Updated May 10, Shell.

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