Ro chanics script

The Ro chanics script under the camera is equipped with the same kind of pegs and bottom light that the animation crew works with.Tokyo Ghoul.Twitch Tv.Epic Minigames – Roblox.Ferguson redesigned him with a much shorter snout; we junked all the first attempts to animate him, and there were no more problems.We both have been intensely curious about the fact that some people easily learn to draw, while others struggle with at best a very poor result.After trying a number of techniques, he has finally settled on using frosted cels and color pencils.This was in sharp contrast to the intense anxiety I had felt when I heard about the assignment.The picture should be seen four or five times in order to study and understand the various effects Williams has produced.People have a tendency to do whatever comes easiest, avoiding difficult problems.Tarcher, How does the film start?
Roblox High School 2 Script Pastebin – Aimbot Simulator

Roblox High School 2 Script Pastebin – Nobody had previously dared to veer from the Victorian primness of the standards set at the very beginnings of the profession.Sign up.The negative aspects just about cover every aspect of filmmaking.We have been involved mostly with writing so far.Sign it and return it with the material you want to show.

A few years from now, your personality will be more mature and you probably will be able to cull more information from these same books than you did the first go-round.Some of these books will be read once; others will be your lifelong companions, to be read and used again and again for the rest of your professional life.Notice that I do not mention studios.Groups of people do not form the van of a new movement.So compelling are these new vistas that old methods and customs learned by painful study are happily abandoned in favor of new points of view.

It is not some Herculean task, no Augean stables to clean out.You learn at your own speed; no need to stuff yourself like a Strasbourg goose to meet a test.Some of these books will interest you more than others.Realize that this will change as the years go by because your tastes will undergo many modifications.I hope this form of self-education will make you resilient and full of intellectual curiosity, ready to drop hard-won knowledge if the art of animation takes on new forms, new theories.

There is nothing more pathetic than an artist whose work habits are so constricting that a new school of thought leaves him or her stranded like a beached whale.

Age is not a factor.Grim Natwick, creator of Betty Boop, did some fine animation at eighty-six.I have scolded animators in their thirties for being old-fashioned.

The best insurance for a long, happy, and successful career is not a set of cast-iron work habits.Think of the incredible number of people who are born, live, and die without ever experiencing the exaltation of a creative act.Respect your good fortune and nurture your talent.One thing I can guarantee, if you enter the animation profession, you will not have a prosaic life.Just imagine the millions of people who get up in the morning and spend all day typing invoices, turning nuts, waiting on tables, directing traffic, and drudging through hundreds of other commonplace jobs.

If you like to travel and work in different countries, you may.I can guarantee that you will never be bored.There is one proviso: You will not be bored if you are one of the leaders of the profession.As in any other business, there is plenty of hackwork, dreary beyond belief.Luckily, there are plenty of hack artists available who can do this kind of work without suffering a qualm.

This brings me to the problem of competition.It is my observation i hat over 90 percent of any group of workers are unwilling to improve their abilities by study—unless it happens during working hours and the boss supplies the means.When I worked for Walter Lantz, directing his films, we had about fifty people on the staff.We were the only people on the entire staff who were students!

Lack of interest in the profession, lack of energy both physical and psychic, and laziness left forty-seven people out of the competition.I believe this was also about the average in the other studios.The exception was the Disney studio, where most of the creative members of the staff studied at night and on weekends.So, for the ambitious neophyte, these figures should be reassuring: The competition consists of less than 10 percent of the entire animation profession.

I had a brief stint of teaching at The School of Visual Arts.Here I encountered some youngsters who rebelled at the idea of producing a film in an orderly fashion, that is, making a storyboard, model sheets, bar sheets, and so on.They stared me impatiently.Just lemme fool around with the camera.I wanna be, you know, like, free.

I can see why these themes are not acceptable to the young people of our time, but production methods should not be dumped along with the content.The first time each of these terms is used in the text, it is italicized, as a signal that the definition may be found in the glossary.

No other medium for creativity has such a sublime admixture of controlled time, movement, drawing, painting, speech, and music.Join me in the excitement of knowing that we are part of a select group of people whose membership goes back into prehistory.

We are one with the artists who drew the bison in the caves of Altamira, designed the patterns of the rocks at Stonehenge, made the wondrous sculptures in the portals of the cathedral at Chartres, and created the portraits and religious paintings of the Renaissance.Let me give you a tip, the result of long observation and much practice.You are about to get an education in a very emotional and complex profession.

Bring some passion into it; feel how exciting it is to be an artist, and how marvelous that you are going How an Animated Film Is Produced Atiimaliiig a film is very much like making a flip book, where you flip I lie pages and the figures on them seem to move.The closer the various pai ls of the character are to the position in the previous drawing, the slower he action will appear to be; the wider the spacing between parts, he lasler he action.

Hie pages of a flip book are bound, to ensure registry.In the center of the I ion III is a pane of glass, and under it is a light box.The paper is thin i iioiigh so hat when the bottom light is on, the animator can see the iiiiiiiialion on four or five sheets of paper.That way, the position of the iiiiimiilion on the next drawing can be gauged.I o save unnecessary work, very often the various parts of a character iiic splil up.

For example, if the figure stands in one place for a long lino, I he animator may elect to make a separate drawing of the feet, iiiNlead of racing them on drawing after drawing.If at one point only the head is moving, he body may be drawn separately.

If the arms are moving, the animator may draw the feet and the body on one drawing, leaving the head on one level and the arms on another.When one drawing of a part of the body is held for a time while other parts are moving on different levels, the camera operator needs careful instructions from the animator.

A form called an exposure sheet has been developed over the years.See illustration on page The work then goes to the assistant animator, who follows the instructions on the exposure sheet, adding more drawings.The scene is then passed to the second assistant.At this point there will be only one or two drawings to be made in between those that have been made by the other two artists.

The drawings are photographed under an animation camera.See illustration above.The table under the camera is equipped with the same kind of pegs and bottom light that the animation crew works with.The camera is rigged to shoot one exposure at a time, and can slide up and down the column to make long shots, close-ups, and trucks.

The resulting footage is shown in a projection room, and reviewed by the animator, the story crew, and the director.It is at this point that major corrections or additions are made.

The revised animation is rcshot and screened once again.The transfer is made either by tracing each drawing in ink, or by a Xerox machine especially designed for this purpose.Otie complication is that while the transparent cels themselves seem to be colorless, they actually have a slight tone.

Very often as many as four or five cels are used to make up a single exposure, so the paint has to be carefully graded to offset the color built up in the cels as the sheets accumulate.

A character that was on the bottom level of a live-cel scene, and for technical reasons has to be moved to the top level, cannot be colored with the same palette for both sets of draw – ings.The cels on the bottom level have to be painted with lighter values than the ones on the top level, otherwise there will be a very perceptible color jump.

While this painting is going on, backgrounds are made for every scene, according to the sketches of the layout artist.The paper used is he same size as the cels and, like them, is equipped with peg holes.The backgrounds may be done in any medium—oil, watercolor, colored pencil, pastels, cutout bits of colored paper.This group of cels is then stripped off the pegs and another set placed tiown.At this point, the sound track may consist of as many as a dozen separate reels.

Perhaps several have music that was recorded prior to I he start of production; others may be sound effects.Dialogue may be oti several tracks.After the color photography has been done and ajiproved by the director, all these sound tracks are combined on one t rack.The sound track and the color negative are sent to a laboratory and a combined track and animation print is struck off.

If this print is satisfactory, the production is complete.Of course, I have omitted many of the less-important stages, such as checking, because I want to make this explanation easy for the novice to grasp.The director also has the power lo suggest hiring and firing to the producer.He or she must be a good cartoonist with the ability to make funny poses; and has to have some knowledge of basic background material such as landscapes and architecture.

It is vital that the designs must lend themselves to good acting and are capable of being animated.In most cases, the characters must look good in more than one view.

He or she needs the ability to do research on costumes, architecture, and landscapes.It is essential to have a sound knowledge of perspective and composition; and also to be conversant with the technical needs of the animator and the camera operator.

The animator needs to know a great deal about acting theory and practice; fine draftsmanship is essential, as is the ability to make funny drawings and actions.He or she must have total knowledge of the camera in order to write comprehensive camera instructions.The animator should have some executive ability in order to supervise the assistant animator and inbe – tweener.

Animated and directed by Kaj Pindal.The I iiliMN arc added by computer.As the assistant gains expertise, the animator gives liim or her small bits of animation to do.

Gradually this amount is increased, until the assistant animates small scenes, then more important shots, finally graduating into a full-fledged animator.There are very few artists who have cliosen to make inbetweening a profession; they usually aspire to liccome assistants and eventually animators.The work needs a person with a strong sense of order and a sound knowledge of the camera.Watercolor, acrylics, oils, pastel, and cutout papers are the materials usually used to make backgrounds.

Many layout artists draw with very few details, expecting the background artist to supply them, and he or she must be ready to do so.Most background artists are satisfied to make this job a permanent one.Very often the artist is not a cartoonist but a person with an extensive classical art education.

Character design for The Night the Animals Talked.Drawings by Shamus Culhane.Neatness and a firm, careful hand are the main requirements.The work is normally done by women who make inking a career; very few men elect to become inkers because the job, under present conditions, is a blind alley.It is the same kind of work that is performed in any office—in effect, another dead end.

What the work entails is a complete ilry run on the cels and background to see whether there are any mistakes in the painting; the animation must be matched to the background to see if it is in registry; if, for example, a part of a character goes behind an object.It is necessary to know how to keep the equipment in good running order.Above all, consummate patience is needed, because a good part of photographing animation is by rote, just like any other machine work.

Instead, the main function is to assemble tracks and reels according to the bar sheet, attend recording sessions, and keep all the reels in sync.Moving from Creative to Technical Work As you can see, there are a number of jobs in a studio that require skill rather than talent.

There is a sharp line of demarcation between the two kinds of work, and, except for the job of assistant director, no way for a skilled worker to cross over into the more creative functions.Directors have to work at a very intense pace.They have only so much energy to expend every day, and naturally they do not want to expend it on record keeping or any other noncreative work.The more the assistant can take over responsibilities, the more valuable he or she becomes.

Tapping into Your Creativity 23 Tapping into Your Creativity There are several books in the bibliography that are going to be required reading.I expect that at some point you will want to own them all, but a few will be worth studying over a period of many years.The series of exercises he has created are ideal for learning how to draw an accurate rough sketch.Without this facility, it will be very difficult to learn to make high-speed roughs, which means that some of my teaching methods will be impossible to absorb.

Perhaps you think that you draw a pretty fair rough and do not need practice.I would like you to begin a course of exercises on drawing one-minute roughs for one hour every day.Keep all your drawings, date them, and at the end of a month compare your latest drawings with the first ones.You will be amazed! By the end of the second month of daily exercises, you should be able to sketch a working drawing in twenty to thirty seconds.

Ignore the contour drawings and the drawings made without looking at the paper.Later, for your own education, this kind of exercise can be added to your schedule.But concentrate on these lightning-fast sketches for the next few years.

The value of being able to draw high-speed roughs was brought home to me when I began my research into creativity.As soon as I started to become an animator,.! I would go to work in the morning and have a marvelous few hours drawing with almost no effort.Then I would go 10 lunch and return to find that the magic touch was gone.Sometimes the reverse was true: After hours of struggling, I would seem to shift into gear and drawing was fun and games again.

It worried me because there was such a vast difference between my bad drawings and my good ones.I was working at Fleischer studio at the time, and I seemed to be the only person who worried about these wild swings between mediocrity 11 nd expertise.

So I was in a panic when I hil a streak of bad drawings.Poor work was a sure way to end up out ol a job.What to do? Most of them were pompons bits of jargonese.

A nd I here were other times when the drawings seem to flow from their pencils with no struggle.I be remedies they suggested were unsatisfactory.Freddie Moore lecommended switching from pencil to crayon.Tytla just bulled his way through the day, then threw the results away the next morning.Yet I was sure that if it was such a universal allliction, there must be some principle that was being used or abused.

Finally, I was assigned to work with Bill Roberts, one of three Pluto specialists.Eventually, I got my big chance.There was a sequence about Pluto and a crab in Hawaiian Holiday, which would normally have gone to one of the Pluto specialists, but they were all busy on Snow White.

So I was given the assignment.Instead of starting to work on the animation as soon as I was given the storyboard sketches and the layouts, I fell into a languid mood.

It felt like a kind of daydream, not thinking about the work at all.This was in sharp contrast to the intense anxiety I had felt when I heard about the assignment.Even these were not made with any concentration.

They were more like doodles.The next day was a repeat performance, or the lack of it.Once again, I scrawled a few inch-high drawings of Pluto and some sketches of the crab.By the third day, I should have become anxious.If Ben Sharpsteen, the director, happened to drop into my room to see what I was doing, he would have been appalled.I had three pages of tiny drawings.That was all.But it was as if I was waiting for some inner message, some resolution in my psyche that would start me off.

Midmorning of the fourth day, I was suddenly galvanized.I never stopped to number drawings; gave only a cursory glance at the exposure sheets; and forgot about spacing charts.My only purpose was to pour out this information about the action, and it was like a giant flood.I made no effort to control it.None of the roughs were completed drawings.

Some were just an eyeball; others were finished bodies, except for the head.It was a kind of shorthand.That first day, I must have drawn over a hundred sketches.The next day was the same.I seemed to be able to retain this relaxed but intense mood even when it was interrupted by lunchtime or the end of the business day.

An example of rough animation by Shamus Culhane.The drawing took approximately six seconds.Little additional actions, not on the storyboard, began to appear of their own volition.The crab became a personality instead of just a pfop—a kind of crustacean Eddie G.I had the sensation that I was at once the performer and the audience, watching with objectivity the antics of a baffled Pluto and a belligerent crab, yet feeling their emotions as I drew.

In less than a week, the entire sequence was roughed out.I realized that I had one strict rule: I never stopped drawing for any of the usual reasons for interrupting the work, that is, studying the exposure sheets, erasing mistakes, or checking the model sheets.I never even stopped to see why a drawing was discarded.The important thing was to keep going on my pell-mell roughing out.

I never once used an eraser.A drawing was either right or I threw it away, even though it may have needed only a minor correction.I was feeling the action of Pluto as he snarled at the crab, or the crab as he shoved his hat forward, preparing to stalk over to the dog.So these doodles of snarling mouths, scurrying claws, and drooping tails were more memory joggers than drawings.I had been such an unknown quantity as a neophyte animator that I had not been given an assistant, so I was going to do all my own cleanups.

It took me over six weeks to clean up what had gushed forth like a geyser in five days.As the various scenes began to appear in the pencil-test reel, Walt and the story men realized that I had added a new dimension to the crab, so they added little touches of their own.I did even new actions that involved a few feet in this way.Then I would go through the clean-up process and revise the exposure sheet.This was affirmed at the Venice Film Festival the following year.Hawaiian Holiday won an award as the best short subject of the year.

Looking back over this astonishing experience unlike anything that had ever happened to me as an artist , I began to analyze the details of the whole event.Drawing with the Right Side of the Brain It seemed that I had divided my animation into two very separate stages.

The first was this daydream stage, which had culminated m a burst of energy.It was obvious that the most important feature of drawing at top speed at this stage was that I was purposely not allowing myself time to think.

Contemplation and introspection had no place in this stage of creativity.I was now totally involved in interpreting those drawings I had dashed out.

I looked long and hard at each scribble, trying to recall the sensation I was having at the time I drew that particular pose.So I had stumbled on a method of creativity, completely divided into two separate and distinct functions, and, like oil and water, they didn t mix.

I was anxious to try this exhilarating experience on my next picture, but it turned out to be impossible.The work was loaded with technicalities.Each dwarf had his own style of walking, yet they all had to march in unison without gaining or losing ground—all this in perspective shots, back views, scenes with giant shadows of the dwarfs.There was no place for breakneck drawing in any of these shots.Oddly enough, I found hints about the separation of thinking and feeling in the creative act in the writings of such diverse personages as Dr.

I met instant resistance.Norman Ferguson came in one day to congratulate me on my Seven Dwarfs marching.Suddenly I realized that I had been talking to the one man in the studio who had been using this technique all along.He was doing the high-speed scribbles but he had John Lounsbery to clean them up.So when I started talking to Ferguson about high-speed drawings, it was like telling a golfer that I noticed that he always wagged his club three times before taking a swing.

People have been killed for less.I did notice that from time to time, while I watched, an animator would begin to pour out drawings with no effort, but at some point he would interrupt himself to erase a drawing.I restrained myself from telling him that he had just cut off his flow of creativity.

I was right, but he probably would have thought that I was mad.Unfortunately for my zeal, the rest of my friends reacted pretty much like Fergie.Nobody wanted to discuss their work habits.However, I am stubborn, so since I have expounded on this technique to new assistants, animators, audiences at lectures, and new pupils—with no luck whatsoever.Rollo May thinks that this is because people have an aversion to getting into what seems to be a mild trance, where there is a heightening of the senses.

People want to feel that they are in control, so they avoid the experience.Whatever the reason, the fact is that for all these years, I have yet to get a disciple.We have a lot in common.We both have been intensely curious about the fact that some people easily learn to draw, while others struggle with at best a very poor result.

Sperry and a group of fellow scientists.In brief, they were finding that, unlike Gaul, the brain is divided into two parts.The left side of the brain is logical.It remembers phone numbers.

The best argument for the use of the theory that the right side of the brain is the creative side is seen in these four drawings, with their incredible improvement within the space of a few weeks.It is the strict enforcer.Given a chance, it will shut down the function of the right side and take over.When creativity is called for, the right side, in effect, has to fool the left side into backing off and stop from trying to take charge.

The high-speed drawing technique is going at such a pace that there is no time for reflection and contemplation.The left side of the brain is so orderly and resistant to flights of fancy that, in comparison to the right side, it is a great bore.It is only on the right side that two or more wild fancies meet and form a synthesis—some incredible result that would never come about by conscious effort.

Understand me, it is possible to be an artist all your life, operate with the left side of your brain with only minimal use of the right, and, if you have enough latent talent, manage to turn out acceptable work.My guess is that what we call hack work is often achieved that way.I realize that there are two kinds of personalities.One, like mine, has the mischevious curiosity of a monkey, wants to know how everything works and why.

Seeing Instead of Looking The right side is strictly intuitive, willing to forgo reason and logic, and, unlike the left side, able to tap into what I call, for want of a better term, the memory bank.The memory bank is a part of the process of seeing, rather than looking.For example, two people are idly watching a very old man walk down the street.

One watches the man, regards him as a symbol of decrepitude, and dismisses him with no further need for information.The other person sees the painful straining of the pelvis, the panting mouth, and the dragging feet shuffling along the pavement.The man is not a beggar; he is wearing what used to be a fine coat, and rising from the collar is a worldly wise face.A battered Borsalino is slanted over a pair of merry eyes.So much for seeing as opposed to looking.

I am convinced that all great artists, including animators, have the ability to see, and it is being exercised every waking minute.Not that any of this information is stored on a conscious level, but it is there when it is needed.Tapping into Your Creativity 31 Now that I am aware that I have this facility, it amuses me to catch myself storing information.

I am convinced that this kind storing goes on all day, unless one is doing what we call think g.The most astonishing feature of her findings is the fact that there seems to be no prolonged struggle for proficiency.Kimon Nicolaides and Betty Edwards have a lot in common.I feel that anybody in the creative area of filmmaking should do these exercises.The Natural Way to Draw can be useful for character designers, storyboard artists, and even writers.How much easier it is for a writer to explain an idea to the director with even a crude rough sketch, instead of trying to do it all verbally.

For the moment, use your own hand as a model; later you will be drawing characters.Start right now with the exercises, and please note that sixty minutes of drawing every day is better than a seven-hour session once a week-far better.

The drawings had no weight, sag, or squash.None of them made any effort to conceal the fact that these were moving drawings.Life Quality Versus Stylized Animation 33 so lifelike that he took her into vaudeville, making his appearance dressed as an animal trainer.Seemingly in response to his commands, accented by the cracking of his whip, the dinosaur would do various tricks.Gertie looked so real that many people thought McCay must have traced a movie of a large lizard.

McCay had done nothing of the kind.He merely used his skill as a draftsman with a well-developed sense of showmanship.The other exception to the comic-strip point of view was Max Fleischer.He and his brother Dave invented a machine called a roto – scope, which made it possible to trace a live-action movie exposure by exposure.

With these tracings as a base, an animator could develop very lifelike actions.They hired a staff of artists who, by guess and by God, taught themselves animation.They learned the rudiments very quickly because they had the help of the tracings of the live actor, usually Dave Fleischer.He began to point out that the audience would really like some acting, instead of pie-in-the-face humor.

The storymen came up with Three Little Pigs and The Grasshopper and the Ants in the early s, and by the time The Country Cousin was produced in , the Disney studio had no rivals.Warners and MGM set off in pursuit, but it was a long chase.Not, however, the Disney animators.So the technical methods of drawing lifelike action remained pretty much a trade secret until the Disney strike in And in leaving Disney, they also brashly departed from the Disney standard of life quality in their Aims.

Two veteran directors, Frank Tashlin and Chuck Jones, urged them on.The result was that the youngsters came full circle, back to the days when it was no secret that animated cartoons consisted of drawings.

Backgrounds by Irra Duga.A man in prison finds that freedom can be found within.Character design for a television spot.An example of a stylized figure.Shamus Culhane Productions, Inc.How the Two Styles Differ So, from the middle s to the present time, the two points of view have maintained themselves on fairly equal terms.

In this book, I am going to stress the necessity of learning both forms of animation, with the accent on the technical aspects of life-quality animation not that it is a better technique or point of view, but merely because the technical problems of producing this kind of animation are more difficult than making stylized cartoons, which have no need to maintain the same volume in the characters: Nobody cares in stylized cartoons whether the characters have weight or not; squashing and stretching may or may not be used.

Simulated or not, these same laws do apply to life-quality animation and are, therefore, restrictive, to an extent.We will concentrate on life-quality animation for the same reason that it is better first to learn to drive a manual-shift car.Then you can easily find out how to drive an automatic within a few minutes.On the other hand, a driver who has learned first on an automatic shift will experience some trouble in switching.So it is that a good animator of life-quality animation can adjust easily to high-style drawing and action in a few minutes.

However, the opposite is not true.Very few of the principles of high-style animation would help an animator struggling with his first scene of life-quality action.The Learning Plan This is how we are going to go about your education: Throughout this i book, you will find a series of exercises—in animation, writing, or layout drawing.

In a studio, you do not get choices about what you will or will not do.Get used to the idea.Do not do exercises out of context, either.They have been designed to add to your information in a methodical way.The chapters have been designed to take you through every phase of production.Even if you believe that your sole ambition is to do layouts, pay attention to all the phases of filmmaking.When you understand the difficulties of all the other jobs in a studio, you will be better prepared to work as a part of a production team.

The tunnel vision of a rabid specialist is no asset to the group; besides, what a good feeling to be multiskilled, able to step in and help in departments other than your i own when an emergency arises.One thing I want you to learn is the fact that the wastebasket is your best friend; to do something over because you are not satisfied is not I a defeat, but a victory.

Be your own harshest critic, unsparing in your i analysis of your work and ready to junk it at the slightest suspicion that you could do better.You will have a never-ending battle with yourself to keep on improving your results.It will never stop, but gradually as you gain some recognition, the process will have some I rewards.One can be intellectually very pleased with oneself about an outstanding piece of work You will find, however, as you look at the work on the screen or in the cutting room that you have a vague sense that it might have been better.

The smug feeling of accomplishment will never be yours.That is not strictly true.There is a fierce joy in the quick-sketch process, exhausting as it is; and during the cleaning up, it is amusing to try to solve the mystery of some of the shorthand that happened during that violent outburst of energy.

You will undoubtedly suffer; learning is no happy experience in the beginning, but in time, one finds that creativity evokes exhilaration.Your Actors I feel that it is wiser to have you learn to draw three characters very well, instead of feeding you a multitude of drawing styles.

So here are three characters, very different from each other in size, weight, and proportion.Their temperaments are different, too, which will influence the way they are animated.

Fatty is the muscle man of the group.He is slow-witted, cheerful, and willing to help.He moves with a kind of ponderous agility, so there is a good deal of stretch and squash in his animation.Skinny is a high-strung, jerky, awkward guy who is a mass of nerves.He is uncoordinated and walks with a kind of shamble, elbows out, pigeon-toed, head stuck out in front, so that he resembles a stork or ibis.

Usually cheerful, he is easily frightened.Tiny is the pet, and he knows that he is cute, but not to the point of being obnoxious.He realizes that much of the time he is the most entertaining person in the group.

He has a bouncy walk, bursting with energy and well-being.I expect you to draw for one hour at least five days a week.Buy lots of paper and pencils because you are going to draw a complete character each minute of the hour.There is the rear view, profile, and three-quarter to consider, also the sitting instead of standing.Work at top speed.Above all, never stop to erase!

Work with a big stack of paper on the pegs, as much as they will hold.Do two or three drawings on the same sheet of paper, rip it off, and dispose of the drawing rapidly.This is no time to try to put each piece of paper in some neat niche.

Try drawing the figure in what seems to be a medium shot, about four inches high for Fatty, and the others in proportion.Do not be tempted to stop drawing or to slow down in order to toy with some interesting view of a hand.

If you want to correct or improve some aspect of a drawing, do it on your own time, after the quick-sketch session is over.At first, you probably will not make any drawings of value.

After a time you will want to save some particular sketches.Build up a morgue, and after a few months, as your skills improve, you will start weeding out many of the drawings.

Any virus could be duplicated using the Virus Duplicator, which would take one virus as an input and produce two copies of it.Ro-Bio was struck with a content deletion on July 30, It was initially suspected that this was due to the game’s controversial themes, particularly that it portrayed unethical human experimentation in a comical manner and was essentially a simulator of the aforementioned act.An email sent to MemeNicoi after inquiring about its deletion revealed that the game was taken down for depicting death by hanging as well as gassing related to the Holocaust , and in response, Nicoi soon announced that he was creating a remake which would omit these issues in order for the game to be able to comply with Community Guidelines.

Several players had remade this game, only for these to get struck with yet another content deletion too.Roblox Wiki Explore.Roblox platform.Avatar shop.Limited unique accessories Limited unique gear Limited unique faces.Discord server Roblox group Twitter account.Explore Wikis Community Central.Register Don’t have an account? View source.Games For Kids.Game Streaming.Best Build.Entertainment Video.Review Games.Twitch Tv.Online Games.Build Battle! Games To Play.Epic Party.Roblox Codes.

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How to use:

  1. Keep trying.
  2. Good People.
  3. The result was that the youngsters came full circle, back to the days when it was no secret that animated cartoons consisted of drawings.
  4. You will be surprised at the amount you will learn.
  5. The table under the camera is equipped with the same kind of pegs and bottom light that the animation crew works with.
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These situations are never reversed.It may surprise you that in this book I use a number of very old animated films to illustrate ideas.

wirosuteng45 – properties

  • So I was given the assignment.
  • This group of cels is then stripped off the pegs and another set placed tiown.
  • Write a resume giving your background as a writer.
  • This goal may never be reached; in spite of the efforts of the staff at the Disney studio and they have included some of the best draftsmen in the professionvery subtle acting may never be possible to attain in this medium.
  • In between these two specifications, he was free to animate whatever he pleased, as long as the action was vaguely related to whatever theme they had chosen in the story meeting.
  • What is the story?
  • New York: E.
  • He is wearing a broad grin of triumph that changes to a look of dismay as the floor starts to creak.

: Accepting them as sound precepts may make the difference between enjoying the relationship with the crew or working with a sullen or indifferent group that barely meets your requirements.

The smug feeling of accomplishment will never be yours.It was initially in paid access for 25 Robux but was made free-to-play on December 14, Do figures come out and strike the hour?

  • Luckily, there are plenty of hack artists available who can do this kind of work without suffering a qualm.
  • Paper Balls.
  • The Educational Animation Field There is one escape.
  • Finally, the Research Lab is where contaminated blood samples could be taken in order to discover new strains of viruses.
  • The nearer they are to real life, the more the audience is entertained.

If possible, buy a stopwatch, or if that is too expensive, use your wristwatch.Place it where you can see it on your drawing table, not on your wrist because that will make you stop drawing to look.A model sheet of Tiny.Even the hat has to carry out the line of action.If you have tried one pose and it was a failure, try it again and again.It is not necessary to make a new pose for each sketch.Before you start drawing, set yourself some problems: What is the theme going to be?

Which character this time? Are you drawing one character more often than the others? Which one have you been avoiding? Make a point of drawing him for the next three days.This is what a pencil test looks like.Notice that fine details can be read very easily in negative form.People have a tendency to do whatever comes easiest, avoiding difficult problems.

It is going to be your role to understand this tendency and to circumvent it as often as it crops up.You cannot learn if all you do is what you have already mastered.If you are having trouble with concepts, use comic strips, comic magazines, and books as sources of poses.

Then translate the pose into one of our three characters.Do it on your own time.What we are working up to is a portfolio of drawings and a pencil-test reel of short bits of animation.Writing for Animation! The medium is also useful for expounding abstract ideas, and was widely used in propaganda films during World War II.However, there are definite limitations.While animation seems to be limited only by the imagination of the writer, there are barriers.

Acting in animation is still on a very crude level.This goal may never be reached; in spite of the efforts of the staff at the Disney studio and they have included some of the best draftsmen in the profession , very subtle acting may never be possible to attain in this medium.

The sequence that stirred the most empathy in the audience of Snow White was the grief of the Seven Dwarfs as they stood around the bier of Snow White.In my opinion, the best use of animation is when it caricatures, not imitates, real life.

Nothing could be gained by painfully rotoscoping some actors to attempt to simulate live-action versions of these characters.Every art form has its peripheries, and I believe that animation has a definite limitation in its exploitation of animals and human beings.

When he or she is saddled with a rotoscope version of the animation, the issues are muddled.It is two artistic efforts in an unhappy marriage of very distinctly different art forms.

Staying True to Character Disregarding educational films and other categories, and focusing on entertainment animation, when working with established characters, that is, personalities well known to the public, it is imperative to find out the confines of the character structure.For example, according to Chuck Jones, there are definite house rules for even so loose a story structure as the Road Runner series.These situations are never reversed.

Magoo, the nearsighted star at UP A, never saw anything clearly, no matter how big it was.So if believability in the characters is one of the components of your story line, it will be necessary to equip them with certain attributes in emotional structure, as well as definite physical appearance.

Save it for another film.The Rise of the Cartoon Writer In the early days of commercial animation, story discussions were held after work in an atmosphere redolent of cheap cigars, cigarette smoke, and bootleg whiskey.After a few hours of discussion, the three or four animators involved had pieced together a series of roughly outlined situations and several gags, enough for a story.

There was no attempt to draw any of the ideas.The story conference was strictly on a verbal level.Nor were there any professional story writers.The animators were expected to create their own stories.In between these two specifications, he was free to animate whatever he pleased, as long as the action was vaguely related to whatever theme they had chosen in the story meeting.

Then there was an attempt to create cartoons with real plots, with definite beginnings, middles, and endings, rather than a barely related string of gags.What kind of funny way? Often a written description of a gag proved to be unfunny when it was translated into animation.So the storymen there were no women in the story departments in those days began to draw rough sketches of the salient scenes and gags, gradually adding more and more drawings, until it became customary to draw the entire story.

This National Film Board of Canada cartoon was unusual in that the subject was death.Then someone got the bright idea of putting them up on large pieces of beaverboard.This had several advantages: It was easy to mount the Writing for Animation 47 sketches with thumbtacks and the entire board and drawings could be moved to another room for a full-scale presentation.Written descriptions were held to a minimum.

Now making a storyboard is such a universal practice in filmmaking that it has become customary in live-action pictures, as well.Never work solely from a written script.Unless there is some business reason, such as having to impress the client, it is not necessary to draw a background for each sketch.

When there is a change of locale, it is advisable to draw it, and even to indicate a color scheme.Broadly speaking, there are two kinds of stories; the kind that have a beginning, middle, and end, and pictures such as the Road Runner, which are merely strings of gags.Naturally, the latter are by far the easier pictures to create because of the absence of plot.Some writers specialize in gag writing; others concentrate on situations that generate humor.Themes can be found in current news.

A gag in a current magazine, a joke you hear, some offbeat conversation with a very drunken person you meet at a cocktail party, or a scene you witness on the street may spark an idea.If you want to be a writer, start thinking as a writer; begin to see rather than look.

Once you have made this adjustment to being a seeing person, the ideas will pour in.Developing Your Story It is rare that an idea for a story springs full-blown like Athena from 7.Script and storyboard by ClifT Roberts.Layouts by Gil Miret and Dante Barbetta.

Direction by Shamus Culhane.Then the props are examined for possible gags.Fatty is going to have a mop and a pail of water.A rag? A squeegee? How about the clock? Does it have bells? Do figures come out and strike the hour?

What about height gags? Who is working with him Skinny, Tiny, perhaps both? What kind of running gags? Can Skinny keep spilling water on Fatty? What does the other do to retaliate? Is there a flag? Can he become enmeshed in it? Does the pole start to break? Who saves him—Fatty or Skinny? What available prop or props can be used to rescue him?

Does the face of the clock open, revealing the works? Does a pail fall on Fatty s head so that he staggers on the brink of falling into the street? Can Skinny have a fight with a figure that emerges from a door in the clock tower, ready to strike the hour?

Does the figure strike Skinny instead? Do they have a duel, with Skinny wielding his mop like a sword against the other figure equipped with a mace, a halberd, a gigantic club.Is the figure a knight in armor, a friar? What other bizarre kind of character?

Does another character join in from a door on the other side of the clock? If not, why not? If they do, can they win? How does this script end? Does the trio win? How does the film start? Exercise: Write a Story Draw and write this kind of story for a five-minute short subject for theatrical release.Start oflF with a premise.I have given the locale and the possible characters.Now flesh out these factors into a story.

You may change it later, but I want you to be able to write down the story idea in three sentences at most.Work hard.Don t forget the daily quick-sketch hour.Now you can make them fruitful hours by drawing the characters in a clock-cleaning situation.

One of the factors in creating a story is research.So go to your local library and find different styles of clocks, old and modern.Are you going to use gargoyles? Get stats of figures that strike the hour on clocks, such as the famous ones on the tower in Prague.

Look over books on medieval weapons.Think graphically.Keep trying.A writer who can draw even the most primitive figures is more valuable in a studio than somebody who cannot draw at all.

How do all these zany ideas come about? Remember, there are eventually going to be many audiences for your film.Try to think of yourself in a lazy, relaxed way as part of such an audience.

What would you love to see on the screen? Which character appeals to you most? What would you have him do? Without straining, let him do it.Keep yourself loose the rest of the day, inviting vagrant thoughts about the clock cleaning.It may be several days before you come up with your first gag using this method.I can only tell you that it works.

Go over in your mind the list of possible props, and the environment, the architecture, the clothes the characters are wearing.Just let it come without straining.Start writing a list and keep a file of graphics as you accumulate them.

Remember always to consider the personality structure of every character.How he or she reacts to a given situation is what your story is about.Aristotle in his Poetics was wrong when he said that character is subsidiary to the action.Every personality lives in a private world, which is shared with nobody.The set of values that comprise this character is what interests the audience.The nearer they are to real life, the more the audience is entertained.

Characters react to a situation, not the other way around.So much for Aristotle.Legal Protection for Your Work Since this story is going to be an important part of your samples, it is going to go through many hands before you land a job or an assignment.

How do you protect it? It is no longer necessary to go through the business of copyrighting.One approach is to make a copy and send it to yourself registered mail.Leave it unopened against a time when you have to prove that you drew the script before a certain date.They will register scripts for television, and plays, treatments, and concepts for television series.Selling Your Story: Agents It is almost a hopeless idea to send a script directly to a prospective client.

Get an agent; an agent is a professional door opener.Try to get a Hollywood or Beverly Hills agent; they are right on the firing line every day.Agents are a lot more than salesmen; they are also advisors and counselors.

Remember, they have their fingers on the pulse of the market.If your agent suggests revisions in your property, pay attention.Take the advice, even if you are inclined to like your own version better.

We all do that, but the professional is willing to change material when it is expedient to do so.Defend your reasons for writing what you did, but realize that if your arguments do not sway your agent, you would be wise to do it over, and do it without sulking.

Get used to the fact that you will spend a good deal of your working life making revisions.That is the nature of the writing business, so accept it without rancor.You will have to do it anyhow, so why not take it in good spirits? There are too many other more important things to do, such as earning a living from your writing skills.

It is perfectly permissible to approach a number of agents at the same time.Write a resume giving your background as a writer.Include such facts as having won prizes when you were still in school.Sign it and return it with the material you want to show.Thomas Wolfe took his first book to Max Perkins in a small steamer trunk.In these days when most publishing houses are unimportant minions of gigantic conglomerates, Mr.

Wolfe would probably not be allowed in the freight elevator with his burden.Be sure your material is clean, neat, and professional-looking.Mail it flat, not folded or rolled up.Put scripts in covers but do not have the pages stapled into a permanent binding.Observe the margin requirements for the area of entertainment you are trying to enter.

If the baby spilled strawberry jam on the first page, even if you manage to wipe most of it off, do it over.Many studios will not even look at a seript unless it goes through channels, that is, a registered agent.Of course, if you are in Hollywood, you could take a chance and drop in on Hanna-Barbera, or some other studio, and try for an appointment to show your wares.It might be better to look over your material and start improving it.

Remember that every agent is looking for some new talent to augment his or her income.Take heed.Either quit altogether or buckle down to the grim business of sharpening your skills.The Writers Guild If you have sold a television or movie script or a story line, or have had thirteen weeks of employment as a writer for a signatory to the Writers Guild contract, you have to make application to join the Guild.

It is not a matter of your choice; the applieation is mandatory.You must have done one of the preceding things in order to qualify.How about the rest of you? Most of the very best directors can also animate very well, or they can lay out a film, paint a background, or write a entire script unassisted.Some ean do all of these things.You will be surprised at the amount you will learn.

It may take you several months to complete a story.What of it? If you were in school trying for a Ph.Remember you are assembling a portfolio.At this point in your career, in addition to your one hour of quick-sketch exercise and this five-minute short, you might consider writing about a dozen television spots.Start with a twenty – second, then a thirty-second, finally a full minute.Professionalism Allow me to digress for a moment.

Does this sound like a lot of work? It is, but your future is in the balance.For youngsters just starting to think of a career, who probably have full-time work, I consider that fifteen hours a week is the absolute minimum for preparing to pursue any job in an animation studio.There is the problem of energy, both physical and psychic.

You cannot hope to do all this work and have the same social life as your peers.You will need enough rest so that you do not approach your studies in a state of exhaustion.Sometimes when I was interviewing people for a job, I would ask how much study they were doing on a regular basis.A surprising number said none.

When asked how they expected to learn, the answer was usually that they expected to pick up experience on company time.They had other interests—bowling, movies and television, and, of course, the opposite sex.

The point is that it is not enough to have talent; it has to be exercised, which means that it must be pushed beyond its comfortable limits—not just once in a while but on a steady basis.That is the meaning of this book.It is not for dilettantes.I have mentioned physical energy being frittered away.There is also psychic energy to be considered.Are you glad when you find some information about your subject that you had not known? Or does it frighten you that you didn t know?

Can you plunge into this fairly long film with enthusiasm? Exercise: Television Commercials To get back to the writing of television commercials: Give yourself a problem by examining newspaper or magazine advertisements.Pick out Writing for Animation 55 the lines of copy that are the salient facts about a product.Use one or more of the three characters.You will be surprised how the extra ten seconds in a thirty-second spot make such a difference in your story approach.

Now you can add a line of copy that may not be directly hard sell.If you prefer to make your own, use typing paper and draw a five-by-seven-inch field.There is time for fairly complicated acting.There are spots on the air so self-consciously clever that one wonders what they are selling.While an offstage voice is perfectly acceptable, having the characters speak carries more impact.

Having more than one character talking gives the sound track more color.Speaking of color, do add color to the drawings, either crayon or Magic Marker.

The drawing does not have to be meticulous, and it is not necessary to use a complicated color scheme.Most animated television commercials are designed to move along at a brisk pace.

Fifteen scenes in a one-minute spot would not be unusual.Unlike films made for the theatrical screen, television specials and commercials should use extreme long shots sparingly.The small size of the screen makes for a poor result.The scenes often appear weak, whereas on a big screen in a theater, the long shot often gives a feeling of grandeur and vast space.A Story Is Made Up of Sequences In creating stories for motion pictures think in terms of the film being composed of sequences that, put together, make a story.

You will find that your plot for the five-minute film will fall naturally into sequences.Another sequence might be one of the characters on a flagpole.Realize that each sequence must have a high point, something funny has to happen either in the dialogue or graphically.Look for ways to embellish a gag.Remember you are dealing with actors, not just figures who are walking through a story.

Suppose you have a problem of having to lift a very heavy safe, and it is up to the elves to do it.You decide that Fatty is eventually going to pick it up, and his weight, combined with the safe, makes the floor give way.Now he could just grab the safe, lift it up, and go through the floor.Instead, how about the other elves? Suppose Tiny eagerly puts his arms around the safe and tugs futilely.

Skinny then picks him up by the collar and puts him to one side.He does, and Fatty pushes up his sleeves to the elbow, stretches his arms to flex his muscles, bends over, and with a mighty heave picks up the safe.

He is wearing a broad grin of triumph that changes to a look of dismay as the floor starts to creak.Then he suddenly vanishes with the safe through a hole in the floor.The characters are doing some acting instead of walking through the situation in a perfunctory manner.Building an Animation Library Everybody in the animation business should make it a practice to tape animated cartoons and eventually to have a morgue of pictures taken from the air.

Whatever your goal, these films are worth your study, and the work of several writers, directors, and layout people are going to be especially valuable.Maurice Noble, an outstanding layout artist, worked with Jones for years.The work of the Kinney brothers.Jack as director and Dick as writer, in a series of how-to-do-it films featuring Goofy was far removed from the usual Disney mode because it was satirical.

Three Disney animators, Babbitt, Tytla, and Ferguson should be studied carefully because they were the men responsible for the switch in animation from slapstick to modern comedy.They worked at Warner Brothers.Avery was a director, as well, and his zany style of humor gave the Disney staff some stiff competition.He was more restless than the other Warner directors.Then, too, the directors at the Disney Studio were under the close supervision of Walt himself, while the Warner directors had complete freedom of expression.

Aspiring writers should study the way the Warner characters were handled in comparison to the way the writers in MGM and Disney wrote for their characters.

Animation should be studied by running various isolated actions over and over until the principles of animation that were used are understood, that is, stretch and squash, anticipation, secondary action, gestures during dialogue, and mouth action.Study the story situations and acting of great comics such as Charlie Chaplin, Harry Langdon, and deadpan Buster Keaton and Harold Lloyd for their individualistic treatment of kinetic gags.

They are all on subjects that would never have been attempted a few decades ago.Do not accept the work of these people as gospel.Examine the films critically.What could you have done to improve some aspect of the pictures? Jot down your opinions in a notebook, or make sketches of ideas that you consider to be improvements on what you have been studying.In a profession full of colorful characters, Bakshi is almost in a class by himself A New York street kid with a minimum of formal education, he succeeded in making the first X-rated animated cartoon, Fritz the Cat.

Nobody had previously dared to veer from the Victorian primness of the standards set at the very beginnings of the profession.

His sexual themes were raw, crude, and casual as a quick lay in the back room of a Brownsville poolroom.Even that phase of the picture is a first.The negative aspects just about cover every aspect of filmmaking.Bakshi has no real sense of continuity or pace, so there are big holes in his story line and the picture progresses in fits and starts.His composition of crowd shots must have Sergei Eisenstein turning over in his grave, as if he were on a barbecue spit.

Look long and hard.You are watching the work of a man who had a message but lacked the intellectual means to put it on film.Even so, Fritz The Cat, because of its content, is a powerhouse of a film, and Ralph Bakshi has earned himself a place in animation history.The writers, unacquainted with the medium, fell victim to the fallacy that is shared by the public, that is, animated cartoons are written for the children in the audience.Quite the opposite is true.

This film, however, was designed for the age level of children who would be cajoled after seeing the film into buying the Raggedy Ann and Andy dolls.

The result is a mechanically coy, self-conscious script that was deadly dull, in spite of the charm of the characters that Johnny Gruelle had designed for his books.Some of the sequences seem to have remained overlength because of the fact that they were so well animated.

The Greedy sequence could have been cut by half because the plot was not developing after the character and his appetites were explained.To compound the errors, Joe Raposo, a very gifted composer under normal conditions, created sixteen count them, 16!!! Dick Williams, whose track record on short subjects, titles, and television spots is unsurpassed, proved to be unable to handle such a potpourri of mistakes of judgment.

As a director on feature films, he has yet to prove himself, because on Raggedy Ann he made his own share of errors.Sound judgment and the ability of the director to handle the talent are more important.

To confound their critics, both Bakshi and Williams recently turned their talents to new ventures with remarkable results.The frenzied action and inside jokes are an echo of the work of directors like Bob Clampett and Tex Avery.In this venture Bakshi commands the attention of every serious student of animation.When he was offered the opportunity to direct the animation in Who Framed Roger Rabbit, Williams jumped at it.

The result is that this feature is easily the best use of combined animation and live action to date.By using turning edges instead of the conventional flat color areas, Williams achieved a more satisfactory visual amalgam of the two media.

It may be a long time before the high standards of this film are surpassed.The picture should be seen four or five times in order to study and understand the various effects Williams has produced.I believe the lesson that can be learned from these two men is that one should never be daunted by failures, great or small.Have faith in your talents.Cassettes and Films In addition to taping cartoons from the air, there are an increasing number of cassettes for sale that are exclusively animated cartoons.

Even the Disney Studio is selling cassettes of some of its most important pictures.Unfortunately, the films of our younger stars in the profession are not so easily accessible.One exception is the title film of Mystery! This television title was animated by Derek Lamb from a series of drawings done by Edward Gorey in his psuedo – Edwardian style.

The title is a combination of two extraordinary talents, which makes the film a small but important masterpiece.The forerunner of this kind of animation was directed by Chuck Jones at Warner Brothers in The Dover Boys was a definite break with the Disney tradition of making the characters look like little live people.It was simply a film of high-style drawings that were spoofing a series of books about the Rover Boys.

Although there is a span of about forty years between The Dover Boys Derek Lamb created the basic idea for the title, then looked through all the books that Gorey had illustrated and selected a cast of characters from them.Both Derek Lamb and Chuck Jones were very aware of the comic possibilities in the action, as well as the design of the films.

In addition to cassettes, there are 16 mm films, and many firms are in the business of renting them.In most cases, their catalogues seem to specialize in some era of animation and usually concentrate on the theatrical animation of a few studios.However, a few rent the work of independent filmmakers and should not be ignored.Graphic Suggestions for the Written Script The first tentative steps in creating an animated film should at the same time start to zero in on the appearance of the picture.

The writer should have some suggestions for the storyboard artist, and between them they should have some ideas to present to the director before the story has progressed very far.What about our clock cleaners? Would a light airy treatment, like a Dufy rendering, do the best possible job on the clock tower? Should the colors stay within the linear area or spill over slightly? What about cutout paper instead of painting the backgrounds? The drawing of the three characters quickly narrows down the style selection.

They are not highly stylized, so the backgrounds are going to have to be somewhat conventional.When you see a film for the first time, you are a part of the audience.After that, you can afford to start thinking of better ways to have written certain parts of the film.

In the United States, commercial animation, that is, animated films for motion pictures and television, are, for the most part, fairly Writing for Animation 63 conventional in subject matter and drawing style.This is not true of foreign animation.The pictures there are much more individualistic.To get back to our clock cleaners.Have you thought about the weather as a factor—snow, ice, a lightning bolt, wind?

How is the mechanism of the clock wound up? Is there an enormous key? In effect, let it catch you unawares.Above all, do not go around enthusiastically telling all who will listen some gags from your proposed plot.

You can talk yourself right out of your story.Keep it to yourself until you have a completed storyboard.Maybe this sounds like strange advice.What happens is that every time you recount a part of your story, you expend some of your psychic energy.

After a while, the gags sound rather tired.If you keep it up, suddenly you will be bored by the whole subject.Wait for the kudos until you can proudly show a completed job.Then you will have earned the praise.Even in a studio, it is better to confine your discussions of a picture to other writers, the storyboard artist, and the director.

They are directly involved in your work.Animators who run into you in the hall are not.Rules and Restrictions In these parlous times, the only area of free thinking in commercial animation is feature films.Everywhere else, in television specials, the Saturday-morning shows, and commercials, the advertising agencies and the networks lay a heavy hand on the creative processes.

They have more constrictions and restrictions than the Inquisitorial rack and these are no less painful.So be prepared to have to cope with mindless rules and even more mindless people.If anybody claims that an advertising agency is a font of creativity, I have only to point out that, from the very beginning, radio, for example, has been organized and managed by agencies.

During this entire time not one important American writer of radio programs has appeared on the scene! Believe me, if they started to write for radio, they soon removed themselves.Unfortunately, if you want to be an animation writer, you probably will have to endure some of the frustrations of working with Madison Avenue and the network executives.

The Educational Animation Field There is one escape.Still there are some.Sesame Street uses a good deal of animation on its programs, and it is one place where an unknown filmmaker can get a hearing.

Study the program until you are familiar with the requirements before submitting storyboards.There are some production houses, such as The Learning Company of America, Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York , who might be interested in a writer for a definite project.

Many of the educators feel that learning is a serious business and should not be delivered in a light manner.Both are wrong, of course.Produced in the late s, at last report they have been shown to well over million school children.The films are a mulligatawny stew of animation, live action, and microscope shots.The first of these films, Hemo the Magnificent, sets about to explain the workings of the bloodstream in a highly dramatic manner.

Hemo, an animated cartoon character, is surrounded by a retinue of animals.He scornfully rejects the efforts of a live writer and a scientist to explain how the heart and kidneys work.The actors finally manage to convince Hemo that they are not all that stupid.The mechanics of the heart, which are complicated in actuality.A cross-section of hair follicles and skin for an eighteen-minute educational film, The Skin, written and animated by Gil Miret.Hemo and several other films from the series are still being shown to the schoolchildren of America, even though the pictures were made in the s.

This film was even more of a potpourri of techniques because it included puppets, as well as animation, live-action, and micro shots.These three great writers formed a jury to judge the mystery of the Cosmic Rays.The case was presented by the same writer-scientist team that had appeared in the Hemo film.For example, uranium was shown as a band of Wild West desperadoes.The film was an outstanding example of the ability of good designers to present the most complex theories in visual form.

The third film.The Unchained Goddess, featured a little sexpot goddess who flirted with the scientist-writer team.Again, animation took care of the more complex information, using colorful characters such as the god Thor to give what were in reality little lectures, but these were couched in such humorous terms that they were never dull or boring.

Frank Capra did manage to confound the educators, who believe that learning is a serious affair, because even though his films were fun to look at, they were crammed with information.More important was the fact that the ideas were presented in a memorable manner.Capra has shown the way, yet in spite of the enormous success of his educational films, it has not encouraged makers of similar pictures to follow in his footsteps.

It would seem that an enterprising young writer could find great satisfaction in the educational field.Developing the Story It is a good idea always to have a small pad and a pen on your person.I mean small enough to fit in your pocket.Ideas do not come on a schedule, and what a pity to find you have just had a great thought and have no way to make notes.

Put it in your pocket so that you have it handy at all times.To return to your clock-cleaner script.For example, what architectural features come to mind—steeples, bells, windows, gargoyles? What props would the elves use—Brushes, pails, mops, sponges Keep on compiling lists without stopping to think about them.Scribble as fast as you can until you run out of ideas.

One important thing is to be sure you know how your props work.You may think you know how a scaffold is built, but do you really? What about the pulleys? What do they really do with the ropes when the scaffold has reached a desired height?

For example, after you have made your scribbled lists, you may want to put them into some kind of order, that is, all architectural features together, all cleaning materials grouped.

The left side is very expert at making this kind of comparison; the right side is probably incapable of doing such a job.Keep the two functions separate.Remember that you cannot be creative while being critical of the results.Typing the Script When it is time to type a script, remember that there is an accepted form for the spacing of the top and bottom of the pages, and where to use upper and lower case.

Put the title at the top of each page on a line with the page number.All dialogue and camera instructions should be in upper case for easy reading.The name of the character involved must be at the head of every bit of dialogue, even if it consists of one word.See the following sample page.Make your set descriptions succinct.The same is true for details such as clothes.As soon as possible get your script photocopied and put the copy in a safe place, preferably not under the same roof as the original.

Scripts get lost or burned up.It was never found and there was no copy.It may look fancy, but do not use a permanent binder on your script.Use a cover that does not need holes in the paper for rings, either.The pages of your script are going to be subject to a lot of wear and tear.Notes will be scribbled, pages omitted, and lines excised.Keep it loose! We have been involved mostly with writing so far.Now we are going on to other functions.However, even if you want only to write for a living, do go on and find out about the work of other people in the hierarchy of an animation staff.

You will work better with them if you understand the part they play and the problems they face in production, especially if you try to draw and think about the various precepts I am teaching rather than just reading the text.The result may be crude but at least you are starting to think like an animation writer.There is no way to become a successful writer in this field unless you can create and evaluate stories and gags from a graphic point of view.

So use stick figures or whatever mode of drawing you can manage, but draw a story sketch for everything you work on in this book.Character Design In the average-sized studio, this job does not exist.Characters are designed by the layout person, or by one of the animators.

However, in a large organization—the Disney studio, for example—a designer is a very important member of the crew.On a feature-length cartoon the main characters undergo extensive changes and improvements at the same time that the storyboard is being developed.In a way, being a character designer is very similar to working as a casting director on a live-action film.

A cast has to be created that will make a plausible combination of shapes and proportions that can house the personalities in the story.There has to be a feeling that there is a single point of view that has selected these particular components, a oneness that permeates each drawing.The drawing styles are too disparate.Reference Material Normally, an artist has favorite combinations of sizes, shapes, and proportions, which he or she will probably use all during working life.

So it imperative that early on such a designer begins to gather a morgue and never stops collecting good material.

From time to time, the morgue must be examined and outdated material weeded out.Stylized or Life-Quality? Attention must be paid to the use of the characters.Are they going to be in a high-style unconventional film? If the film is going to use very stylized animation, it is possible to design characters who are only drawn to look good in one view.

The Yellow Submarine is a good example of very high-style designing of characters who could not be used except in very limited camera angles.There is nothing wrong with this approach as long as all the people involved realize that there are limitations to the animation and do not attempt to draw life-quality movements with high-style figures.

Goddess Nu is a figure in ancient Chinese mythology believed to have created the first human beings.The Fire Boy, by Wang Baiyong.What good designing amounts to is the selection of unexpected and, therefore, humorous combinations of shapes.Like all great cartoonists, he has his own private brand of humor.One of the paradoxes of drawing cartoons of animals is that in order to be able to omit, exaggerate, or diminish the proportions of an animal, it is vital that the artist know what the structure of the animal is in real Character Design 75 life.

Therefore, the morgue should contain as many photographs and drawings of various animals as possible.The Model Sheet A model sheet should first contain a number of views of a character in a neutral pose, and cover all aspects of the action in the storyboard.If time and the budget permit, it is useful to draw a number of poses depicting various emotions.But more valuable to the animator is the information about what the character looks like in a relaxed state.

He or she can take it from there.Blinkety Blank, animated by Norman McLaren in Courtesy of the National Film Board of Canada.

Sensible Use of Color Some designers have a carefree attitude about the number of colors they assign to their characters.A good strong statement with a few colors is a big help to the background painter because it is easier to control the color perspective of the set so that the characters do not merge with the backgrounds.It is important to remember that the style of drawings used by the designer, to a large extent, will govern the appearance of the whole picture because the drawings of the layouts for the various scenes will have to reflect that style.

This work has no relation to the kind of drawings used in story sketches, which are inspirational rather than utilitarian.Will It Animate? Every time his head turned, his nose seemed to sweep across the screen.Ferguson redesigned him with a much shorter snout; we junked all the first attempts to animate him, and there were no more problems.

After he was corrected, the Fox proved to be one of the most successful characters in the film.The reality is that it is a hectic position.In a large studio, the image might be more akin to a stagecoach driver handling a six-horse team, with each animal trying to pull away from its neighbor.

Camera operators have been known to call the director at three in the morning to ask for an opinion about some problem on a rush job.The difficulty is that each personality must be handled with care, whether it involves the acceptance or rejection of an idea, because one of the most important aspects of directing is guiding the crew into making a good film while at the same time sustaining the morale.Psychologically the director is a parental figure.

Whether or not this role is accepted might easily be the difference between a well-run crew and a group split by personality problems.DeSoto pull the tooth of a rather testy patient.Like children in a family, the crew rarely see the director as a person with strengths and weaknesses.Any attempt to pour out your complaints to a member of the crew will result in one of two things: That person, or any other member of the group who hears about it, will resent your attempt to shift some of your burden; or if he or she accepts the role of Father Confessor, you will find that you have usually created a kind of Cardinal Richelieu who will try to manipulate you from this advantageous position.

If all this sounds cynical, I can only say that it is an analysis based on observation and evaluation.One of the nerve-racking aspects of directing is the fact that the relationship between director and crew is constantly being tested, and sometimes accidentally skewed.An absentminded hello in the hall may easily be construed as a frosty greeting.Accepting them as sound precepts may make the difference between enjoying the relationship with the crew or working with a sullen or indifferent group that barely meets your requirements.

Of course it is possible to work as a director in a very small studio, even a one-man operation, doing all the functions of filmmaking on your own; but for most of us, such a luxury is beyond our experience or expectations.The director directing television commercials, half-hour specials, or feature pictures needs a nimble mind.He was doing very well on his first assignment until I interrupted him.It was time to start conferring with the writers about the next picture.He found it confusing to be handing out work to his animators one moment and then suddenly having to adjust to thinking about the complexities of a new story plot.

I reminded him that normally he would not only be working with In the last seventeen years, Frederic Back has made seven short films of ten minutes or less.After trying a number of techniques, he has finally settled on using frosted cels and color pencils.

At that point, he just gave up and went back to animation.These people are not intimidated or pressured by the fact that a myriad of similar problems are waiting to be solved.Look for an abandoned lighthouse.As a director, you may find yourself with a writing staff whose humor is very different from your own.This can be a liability or an asset, depending on how you handle the situation.

Obviously, there is little point in trying to wrench the crew around to your brand of humor.A style cannot be discarded like shucking off a jacket.

It will be useful to point out in a casual way that you have a rather different view of humor, which is no indictment of theirs.Indeed, you might suggest that it will be interesting to mesh them together and see what happens.While this might sound like blandishment, there is a possibility of truth in the statement.A more unlikely amalgam of talents can scarcely be imagined.Bugs Hardaway was an expatriate Kansan with the earthy barnyard humor of his background.

Schaffer came from the more sophisticated story department of the Walt Disney studio.To him a gag was a gag.The fact that it was out of character, or did not advance the plot, he dismissed with impatience as too scientific and technical for an animated cartoon—this at a time when I was deep in the writings of Sergei Eisenstein! I was discreet enough not to advertise this fact.I believe both Hardaway and Schaffer were at first rather appalled by my experiments in frenetic cutting a la Eisenstein.

We managed to put together several better-than-average cartoons.Caroline Leaf, one of the outstanding filmmakers of the National Film Board of Canada, was the last person to be hired by the Board from the United States, more than a decade ago.Photo courtesy of the National Film Board of Canada.

It was made by Caroline Leaf, and is a classic example of sand animation.Directors have to be thinking about the whole story.After the one great gag has been submitted, wait, but not too long, for the premise.What is the story? Do not accept the possibility of getting a story structure later.The idea of thinking up an ending later should set off gongs in your head.

It is important, too, that the writers understand that you are a creative person.The storyboard is not going to be put on the screen in its original shape.Gags are going to be added; dead material at least dead in your estimation is going to be cut; and the whole structure of the picture is going to stay malleable, subject to the ideas of every creative person who works on the film, right down to the final screening in sweatbox.

A director is a receptacle for ideas, not some kind of ambulatory copy machine for the storyboard.Another is the kind of story Ishu Patel is an animator known for his sensitive approach to music, which is always intimately bonded to the rhythm of his films.

Paradise, designed and animated by Ishu Patel.It is a story about two birds, each envious of the other.This is his fifteenth film for the National Film Board of Canada.A third type was something that developed in the Disney studios, where their story department became really adept at milking a funny situation.

They found that having four or five sequences built around comic situations made for a very satisfactory picture, and thus the variation was born.Hawaiian Holiday is such a film.It opens with Minnie doing a hula while Mickey plays the guitar.

As a patient was injected with more viruses, they would gradually develop symptoms that would be indicated with sounds or visual effects.Loud groaning and heavy panting were the usual sounds that scientists would hear, as well as visual effects that included uncontrollable vomiting, changing skin color, becoming lethal to make contact with and even exploding.At this point, scientists could use their second syringe to extract the contaminated blood from the patient in order to research.

To get rid of a test subject in order to make room for a new one the limit was 1 human at a time in each cell , scientists could click on the ‘Recycle Human’ button on the control panel to release noxious gas into the cell which gradually killed the human.However, if a scientist who was not wearing a gas mask was also in the cell when the gas was released, then they too would gradually die.

Test subjects could also be suspended by clicking the ‘Rope Human’ button on the control panel, and released with another click.Finally, the Research Lab is where contaminated blood samples could be taken in order to discover new strains of viruses.Scientists would first be directed to the Blood Extractor, where they could input their sample in order to filter out the blood and leave the virus behind as a product.

This virus could then be placed into the Virus Separator on the opposite side of the room, where it would be separated to produce three unique viruses.Finally, a separated virus could be taken back to the Test Block for further testing or stored either in the Public Storage or in a scientist’s private Locker which would hold up to 4 or 13 viruses depending on whether the user had the Big Locker gamepass or not.

Any virus could be duplicated using the Virus Duplicator, which would take one virus as an input and produce two copies of it.Ro-Bio was struck with a content deletion on July 30, It was initially suspected that this was due to the game’s controversial themes, particularly that it portrayed unethical human experimentation in a comical manner and was essentially a simulator of the aforementioned act.An email sent to MemeNicoi after inquiring about its deletion revealed that the game was taken down for depicting death by hanging as well as gassing related to the Holocaust , and in response, Nicoi soon announced that he was creating a remake which would omit these issues in order for the game to be able to comply with Community Guidelines.

Several players had remade this game, only for these to get struck with yet another content deletion too.Roblox Wiki Explore.Roblox platform.Avatar shop.Limited unique accessories Limited unique gear Limited unique faces.Discord server Roblox group Twitter account.

Upon joining the game, players would spawn in as a scientist with randomized features.They would be equipped with two syringes, one for injecting test subjects with viruses and the other for extracting blood from them, as well as a coffee mug which could be filled with coffee in the Research Lab.

After spawning in, players could go to the Virus Block located on the left , Test Block located between the Virus Block and Research Lab and finally the Research Lab located on the right.To go through a door, players could simply click on it to open.The Virus Block was the first location that scientists had to enter.It contained four basic viruses known as Argonella, Necromella, Organella and Kamelia, as well as a special healing virus and a custom virus machine.

The four main viruses also had signs displaying whether they were toxic or explosive, the healing virus would restore health when a test subject was injected and custom viruses had varying effects depending on their color.Viruses were gathered by clicking on the sample where applicable, and scientists could only carry one in their syringe at a time.The Test Block was the second location that scientists had to enter, and this was where they could begin the experimentation part of the game.

This block contained 3 similar containment cells, all of which had their own control panel and sliding door.By using the control panel, a scientist could spawn in a human test subject also referred to as a ‘patient’ and enter the cell in order to inject them with the virus stored in their primary syringe.Each time a scientist injected a patient, their health would decrease by 5 and the syringe would become stuck to them.

As a patient was injected with more viruses, they would gradually develop symptoms that would be indicated with sounds or visual effects.Loud groaning and heavy panting were the usual sounds that scientists would hear, as well as visual effects that included uncontrollable vomiting, changing skin color, becoming lethal to make contact with and even exploding.

At this point, scientists could use their second syringe to extract the contaminated blood from the patient in order to research.To get rid of a test subject in order to make room for a new one the limit was 1 human at a time in each cell , scientists could click on the ‘Recycle Human’ button on the control panel to release noxious gas into the cell which gradually killed the human.

However, if a scientist who was not wearing a gas mask was also in the cell when the gas was released, then they too would gradually die.Test subjects could also be suspended by clicking the ‘Rope Human’ button on the control panel, and released with another click.Finally, the Research Lab is where contaminated blood samples could be taken in order to discover new strains of viruses.

Scientists would first be directed to the Blood Extractor, where they could input their sample in order to filter out the blood and leave the virus behind as a product.

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